Hydro cephalus

‘Hydro’ meaning water, and ‘Cephalus’ meaning head


Causes of Hydrocephalus

  • Obstruction to normal flow of CSF in brain and spine
  • Reduction of Absorption of CSF
  • Excess production rate which exceeds the absorption rate.


  • Congenital : malformations present at birth
  • Infections : bacterial, viral or fungal infections, Tubercular being most common in India
  • Tumors
  • Intracranial Bleed
  • Post traumatic
  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in elderly

Symptoms of Hydrocephalus


Gradually enlarging head size, Drowsiness, Lethargy, Poor feeding, downward deviation of both the eyes.


Progressive abnormal enlargement of child’s head, headache and associated  nausea or  vomiting, fever in case of infectious cause, blurred or double vision, unstable balance, excessive irritability, delayed milestones.


Imbalance and shuffling gait, memory loss; headache, or bladder control problems.

Examination of the patient physically and neurologically

CT scan of the head

Usually treated with treatment of the underlying pathology and if that is not possible, then CSF diversion procedure becomes necessary.

Types of CSF diversion procedures

  • Ventriculo Peritoneal/Pleural/Atrial Shunt
  • Endoscopic procedures