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Technological Advancements In Medical Open Brain Surgery

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Brain Tumors

A brain tumor is a condition where abnormal cells or mass show rapid growth in the brain. The critical factor for such severe health conditions is Mutations, i.e., changes or defects in one’s genes. Another external factor responsible is radiation exposure. Doctors and Medical Experts use different tests to detect brain tumors.

Treatment for Brain Tumors

The treatment of tumors depends upon the size, type, and location of cancer, and doctors opt for various treatments to cure this condition.

Here is a list of treatments one undergoes for the cure of brain tumors:

    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Immunotherapy
    • Targeted therapy
    • Medical observations

Endoscopic Brain Surgery is a medical course of action that is applied for the treatment of brain tumors. ‘Minimal Invasive Surgery’ permits neurosurgeons to recognize and treat the conditions occurring in the brain. Senior Neurosurgeons brief that Endoscopic Brain Surgery is comparatively less invasive than the usual open brain surgery. In this type of surgery, the doctors can get a view of the brain in deep.

The Procedure Of Endoscopic Brain Surgery

An endoscope is a tube-like instrument that consists of a small camera and is used as a significant device in surgery. This endoscope is inserted in the brain either through a small incision in the skull or via any other opening in the body. After the insertion of the endoscope, it provides video images of the brain and allows the surgeon to get a clear view of the problems and complications in the brain.

The images transmitted by the endoscope work as a guide for a neurosurgeon to remove or treat the tumors in the patient’s brain. The surgery is performed with special and specific surgical instruments, and these images help the doctors visualize the exact situation of the brain.

Complications Regarding Endoscopy Brain Surgery

Risk factors of the Surgery involves-

    • Blood clot
    • Internal Bleeding
    • Swelling
    • Infections
    • Stroke Coma
    • Temporary or permanent difficulty in sensory and motor functions.

The Major Open-Brain Surgery

In medical terms, open brain surgery is usually referred to as Craniotomy. The procedure involves an incision to the scalp bone that leads the way for brain tissue. A hole is made, termed the Bone Flap, near the affected area in the brain. The surgery is performed for significant causes such as tumors, aneurysms, blood drain, or removal of any abnormal tissue.

Completion of the procedure is marked by securing the bone flap with plates, sutures, or wires. Sometimes surgeons leave the hole open in conditions of tumors, infection, and brain swelling, which is called Craniectomy.

Upgrade in the Technology

Medical technology is always geared up with changing times. Earlier, open brain surgery or biopsy was an option for any critical conditions. But nowadays, neurosurgeons are going for a much more convenient way to reduce the future health risks and complications due to surgery. Patients who went under Endoscopy Brain Surgery recovered in a short period with less pain since this surgery is less invasive than traditional Open Surgeries.

The patient’s medical history, situation, age, and other elements determine the results of the Endoscopic Surgery. Following are the advantages of this surgery:

    • Outcomes with minimal pain for the patient.
    • Speedy Recovery as compared to other major brain surgeries.
    • Less chances of brain Trauma.
    • Short hospital stay
    • Decreased risk of side effects.


With time medical technology evolved itself. Compared to the past two decades, a massive change came up for patients’ convenience. Earlier Open Brain surgeries required a lot of surgery, and recovery time was quite long with follow-ups and cautions. But today, endoscopy and instrumentation helped the medical team give their best, but the fear of risks in patients decreased.


Dr. Manish Budhiraja is MBBS, MS (Surgery), M.Ch (Neurosurgery) PGIMER Chandigarh, Fellowship in Neuroendoscopy.

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